Do you know what is Building Control?(Part 2)
1.4 Typical work activities
Building control surveyors advise and make judgments on building proposals. Applications are normally paper-based forms but they may also be submitted via email. Once received, surveyors check the applicant's plans to ensure that they comply with building regulations. At this stage, the work may involve:
• issuing approval for the work to commence;
• asking the client for further details;
• Issuing conditional approval, subject to other steps being included in the process.
During the various stages of the construction process, building control surveyors conduct site inspections to check that work is being carried out satisfactorily. The applicant or the applicant's builder will inform or consult the surveyor at various stages of construction, for example:
• Before pouring concrete foundations at the excavation stage;
• Before covering up concrete foundations;
• Before covering up damp proof courses;
• Before covering up hardcore laid for the floor;
• Before covering up new drains;
• At least five days after covering up new drains and roof timbers;
• At least five days before occupying the building/or when work is finished.
The work also involves:
• Liaising and communicating with other statutory undertakings, eg highways;
• Calculating the fee to be charged to the client;
• Keeping up to date with current regulations;
• Answering enquiries from clients on the progress of the work;
• Providing a completion certificate when the building work is satisfactorily completed;
• Undertaking enforcement activities where non-compliance has occurred.
On more complex projects, the building control may be involved at the pre-application stage to advice applicants on design issues and suggest alternatives that may help to reduce the risk of delays and save costs.
1.5 Career development of Building Control
Building Control play an important role in the building industry as part of the construction team. It is essential that they have the technical knowledge to be able to talk authoritatively when dealing with architects, builders, solicitors, surveyors, engineers and developers.
Building Control offers an exciting, challenging and varied career which leads its exponents to the cutting edge of construction. Officers throughout their career must maintain their level of expertise and keep up-to-date with the latest developments in materials and construction techniques through comprehensive training. As well as this Continuing Professional Development (CPD), surveyors have the opportunity to obtain higher level academic qualifications – such as MSc in Fire Engineering or Structural Engineering.
1.6 Introduction the Building Regulations
*The most important in the building control scope is having a relation with building regulation.
The government publishes Approved Documents, which demonstrate how to the requirements of the Building Regulations may be satisfied. They are not the only means of satisfying these requirements. Other ways can include using guidance published by Uniform Building by Law.
Deposited plans are checked for compliance with the Building Regulations, and if found satisfactory, a certificate of approval is issued. Inspection of the work on site is then undertaken from the initial commencement through to completion to ensure the regulations are being adhered to.
1.6.1 The following is a brief summary of the main requirements of the regulations:-
The foundations, walls, floors and roof should be of adequate size and construction for the weight they are expected to accommodate. In the case of a domestic floor, this could include the weight of the ceiling below, floor joists, floor boarding, furniture and occupants.
Any structural frame, beams or columns must be designed to safely support the likely loading.
Fire safety is a complex subject, which to avoid confusion is divided into the following areas:
Means of Escape in the Event of Fire: Buildings should be designed so that occupants can escape from any part of the building to a place of safety without assistance.
In dwellings, this is relatively straightforward and one would normally expect to see smoke detection, escape windows from habitable rooms above ground floor level etc.
Where loft conversions are carried out on buildings of more than one storey, additional measures such as the provision of self-closing devices on doors opening onto the staircase and a half-hours fire protection between the loft rooms and the staircase are necessary.
Surface Spread of Flame: Surface finishes or coverings on walls should not promote the spread of fire in a building. This requirement is most critical on escape routes.
In dwellings, this only relates to new work and then only to coverings such as timber cladding or carpet fixed to walls.
Fire Resistance of Structure:
The structure of buildings should resist the effects of fire including heat and smoke for a reasonable period of time.In dwellings traditional construction materials such as concrete, brickwork and plaster usually provide sufficient fire resistance. However, additional measures may be required where loft conversions are carried out and where a garage is attached to a house.
External Fire Spread: Buildings should be constructed so that the risk of fire spreading from one building to another, as happened in the Great Fire of London, is minimised. There are limits on the amount and size of door and window openings near to a boundary in dwellings and other buildings. There are also restrictions on the use of combustible cladding and on flat roof finishes near to boundaries.
Access for the Fire Brigade:
Buildings should be constructed so that fire fighting can be carried out successfully. Dwellings and other buildings should have access for fire fighting vehicles or be near enough to access for fire fighting.
Resistance to Moisture:
Contaminants, weather and ground moisture should not be allowed to get into a building. Normal construction using such elements as damp proof courses, damp proof membranes, lead flashings, cavity walls and suspended floors reduce moisture penetration into buildings. Linings and specialised controls can protect building occupants from potentially hazardous substances in the ground, such as lead, arsenic, radon and methane.
Resistance to the Passage of Sound:
Walls between buildings and floors and stairs between different occupancies within a building should resist the passage of sound.
The occupants of a building should be provided with sufficient ventilation by natural or mechanical means. Roof spaces where condensation could occur should be ventilated. Similarly, if condensation could occur in sub floor voids and damage the fabric of the building as result, they should be ventilated.
There should be sufficient hot and cold water, sanitary and washing facilities for the occupants of a building. Unventilated or pressurized hot water systems must be safely installed.
Drainage and Waste Disposal:
Foul water and surface (rain) water drainage should discharge to a suitable outfall. There should be suitable means for the storage of household solid waste.
Heat Producing Appliances:
Fires, boilers and incinerators burning any fuel must be provided with sufficient air for combustion and a satisfactory means of disposing of combustion gases or fumes. The placement and construction of appliances and their flues should reduce the risk of a building catching fire.
Protection from Falling, Collision and Impact:
Stairs, fixed ladders and ramps should be designed and constructed so that people can move safely in or about a building. Raised floors, balconies, light wells etc. should be provided with guarding to prevent people from falling. People should be protected from vehicles that may be moving about a building. People should be protected from colliding with open windows, skylights, ventilators or doors.
Conservation of Fuel and Power:
The loss of heat through elements of the fabric of a building such as roofs, walls, floors, windows or doors, should be limited. Hot water systems should be insulated to reduce heat loss. The use of energy within a building, e.g. lighting and water heating should be controlled.
Access and Facilities for Disabled People:
Reasonable provisions should be made for disabled people to gain access to and use a building. There should be suitable sanitary facilities within the building.
Reasonable provisions are to be made in the design, installation, and inspection and testing of electrical installations in or associated with dwellings in order to protect people from fire or injury. Sufficient information is to be provided to allow people operating, maintaining or altering an electrical installation to do so with reasonable safety.
to be continued...
By Pejuang Kecil Ukur Bangunan